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Influence of low dose naltrexone on Raman assisted bone quality, skeletal advanced glycation... (Abstract)
Influence of low dose naltrexone on Raman assisted bone quality, skeletal advanced glycation end-products and nano-mechanical properties in type 2 diabetic mice bone
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
5 March 2021
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) commonly affects the bone mineral phase and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) which eventually led to changes in bone material properties on the nano and macro-scale. Several anti-diabetic compounds are widely used to control high blood sugar or glucose caused by T2DM. Low Dose Naltrexone (LDN), an opiate receptor antagonist, and a known TLR4 antagonist, treatment can improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in high-fat-diet (HFD) induced T2DM mice. However, the influences of LDN on the local bone quality, mineralization of the bone, and the skeletal AGEs levels have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study is to understand the effect of LDN on Raman assisted bone quality, skeletal AGEs (determined by Raman spectroscopy), and nano-mechanical properties in HFD induced T2DM mice bone. In order to investigate these, mice and corresponding bones were divided into four groups (divided based on diet and treatment), (a) normal control diet treated with saline water, (b) normal control diet treated with LDN, (c) HFD treated with saline water, and (d) HFD treated with LDN. In T2DM condition (HFD treated with saline water), alteration of Raman-based compositional measures in bone quality including mineral-to-matrix ratios, carbonate substitution, mineral crystallinity, and collagen quality was observed. Our data also indicated that T2DM enhances the skeletal AGEs, and impairs the nano-mechanical properties. Interestingly, present results indicated that LDN controls the Raman-based compositional measures in bone quality in HFD induced T2DM mice bone. Additionally, LDN also protects the alteration of the skeletal AGEs levels and nano-mechanical properties in T2DM mice bone. This study concluded that LDN can control the HFD induced T2DM affected bone abnormalities at multiple hierarchical levels.
Keywords: Bone; Mineralization; Naltrexone; Nano properties; Raman spectroscopy; T2DM.