LDN Protects Bone Property Deterioration at Different Hierarchical Levels in T2DM Mice Bone
10 Aug 2021
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) commonly affects bone quality at different hierarchical levels and leads to an increase in the risk of bone fracture. Earlier, some anti-diabetic drugs showed positive effects on bone mechanical properties. Recently, we have investigated that low-dose naltrexone (LDN), a TLR4 antagonist treatment, improves glucose tolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced T2DM mice and also gives protection against HFD-induced weight gain. However, effects on bone are still unknown. In this study, the effects of LDN on the bone properties at different hierarchical levels in T2DM mice bone were investigated. In order to investigate these, four different groups of bone (divided based on diet and treatment) were considered in this present study. These are (a) normal control diet treated with saline water, (b) normal control diet treated with LDN, (c) HFD treated with saline water, and (d) HFD treated with LDN. Bone properties were measured in terms of fracture toughness, nano-Young's modulus, hardness, mineral crystal size, bone composition, and bulk mineral to matrix ratio. Results indicated that fracture toughness, nano-Young's modulus, and hardness were decreased in T2DM bone as compared to normal bone, and interestingly, treatment with the LDN increases these material properties in T2DM mice bone. Similarly, as compared to the normal bone, decrease in the mineral crystal size and bulk mineral-to-matrix ratio was observed in the T2DM bone, whereas LDN treatment protects these alterations in the T2DM mice bone. The bone size (bone geometry) was increased in the case of HFD-induced T2DM bone; however, LDN cannot protect to increase the bone size in the T2DM mice bone. In conclusion, LDN can be used to control the T2DM-affected bone properties at different hierarchical levels.